Clear Concept Of Narraion : All Rules Of Narraion Lesson in English

Narraion Step by Step with Rules and Example

Narration are two types - (1) Direct Narration (2) Indirect Narration
Any test is usually asked to convert from Direct Narration to Indirect Narration. However, if you learn well, you can direct from Indirect.
Those who want to learn Narration from the beginning will watch it with a little attention. Narration has two parts - (1) Reporting verb (2) Reported speech
Direct Narration
She said , " Will you go to college, Apurba ?
Reporting verb = She said
Inverted Comma = , "
Reported speech = Will you go to college, Apurba ?
No one will make it easier for you. So try to understand with a little time will work. And once you understand, you can do it yourself.


Changes Of Reporting verb and Inverted Comma

Reporting verb (Direct) Sentence Indirect

Assertive sentence Says/told [ ,” Instead that]

Interrogative sentence Asked [ ,” Instead if / wh word]
Say / said to Imparative sentence Request/order/advise [ ,” Instead to / that]

Optative sentence Wish/pray [ ,” Instead that]

Exclamaory sentece Exclaim with joy/ sorrow [ ,” Instead that]
Have a look -

Assertive sentence Reporting verb Change

Direct: He said to me,"
Indirect: He told me that .......

Interrogative sentence Reporting verb Change

Direct: Peter said, “Are you from Australia ?
Indirect: Peter asked if .......

Imparative sentence Reporting verb Change

Direct: The man said, “Please, bring me a chair.”
Indirect: The man requested to .......

Optative sentence Reporting verb Change

Direct : My friend said to me, "Good morning, I am happy to see you !"
Indirect : My friend wished good morning to me and said that .......

Exclamaory sentece Reporting verb Change

Direct : The student said, "Alas! My friend is fool."
Indirect : The student exclaimed with sorrow that .......

Changes Of Subject and Object In Reported Speech at Indirect Narration

Subject and Object of Reported speech need to be changed. It just needs to be understood that there are no rules for change. Let's take a look at some examples -
Direct: They said, “We will be partying tonight.”
Indirect: They said that they would be partying that night.

I told George, “You should stay.”
Indirect: I told George that he should stay.

Direct: She asked, “How are you doing today?”
Indirect: She asked me how I was doing that day.
Direct: Mother said, “Listen to your elders.”
Indirect: Mother advised me to listen to my elders.

Direct: Mr. Sakib said, “Do not go near the house.”
Indirect: Mr. Sakib forbade going near the house.
First you have to look at how many people are in the sentence. Usually there can be quotes from two people but sometimes there are quotes from more than one person. When others talk to each other, suppose you hear it from a distance as a third party and then tell that to another person.

Changes Of Tense In Reported Speech at Indirect Narration

Changes Of Tense -
After changing the subject, you have to change the tense and put the verb. And lastly, if there is an Object, it can be changed.
Present IndefinitePast Indefinite
Present continuosPast continuos
Present PerfectPast Perfect
Past IndefinitePast Perfect
Past PerfectPast Perfect
past Perfect continuosPast Perfect
Past continuosPast Perfect continuos

Last Step:

Changes Of  Word In Reported Speech at Indirect Narration

DirectIndirectDirect Indirect
TodayThat dayThisThat
To nightThat nightTheaseThose
TomorrowThe next dayThusThat way/so
yesterdayThe previous dayComeGo
Last nightThe previous night
Next week/yearThe following week/year

Changes Of Modal In Reported Speech

DirectIndirectDirect Indirect
Shall/will/mayShould/would/mightMay haveMight have
Can/Can beCould/could beNeed/dareNeeded/dared
Shall be/Will beShould be/would bemustHad to
May beMight beMust havemust have had+ (noun)
Should/could haveShould/could have had

Those who want to learn in a little more detail can take a look at some of the Rules of Narration

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