Gerund ও Participle নির্ণয়

ইংরেজিতে Gerund ও Participle নির্ণয় করতে বলে প্রায় প্রায় । কিন্তু এমন প্রশ্ন করে যে কনফিউশনে ফেলে দেয় । নিচের ব্যাখাটি পড়ুন আর কনফিউশন হবে না ।
প্রশ্নঃ I joined a riding school. Here " riding" is a
(a) Participle
(b) Verbal noun.
(c) Infinitive
(d) Gerund .
Correct answer: 100% Gerund.

Reference from: Practical English usage by Michael Swan, A practical English Grammar by Thomson & Martinet, High school English Grammar By Wren & Martin.
And many more.

বিঃদ্রঃ বিভিন্ন গাইড বইগুলোতে এটার উত্তর Participle দেওয়া আছে, যেটা সম্পূর্ণরূপে ভুল।মনে রাখবেন, Participle তখনি হবে যখন চলমান অবস্থাকে নির্দেশ করবে। যেহেতু এখানে স্থির অবস্থাকে নির্দেশ রেছে তাই এটি Gerund

কিন্তু কেন?
THE GERUND :
Verb এর Present form এর সাথে ing ‍যুক্ত হয়ে যে word গঠিত হয় এবং উহা একই সাথে verb ও Noun এর কার্য সম্পন্ন করে তাকে, Gerund বলা হয়। তাই Gerund কে Double part of speech এর অন্তর্গত বলে ধরে নেয়া হয়, কারণ ইহা একই সাথে Verb ও Noun কাজ করে থাকে। যেহেতু gerund গুলো noun-এর মতো কাজ করে, তাই এরা noun-এর মতোই বাক্যের subject, object, preposition-এর object এবং incomplete verb এর complement হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হতে পারে।

সংক্ষেপেঃ Gerund = verb+ing = noun = verb + noun
✪ Note : Gerund দ্বারা স্থির অবস্থা বা কাজ বোঝায়।
Example :
✪ Swimming is good for health.
✪ Teaching is a good profession.
✪ Reading books is my hobby.

ব্যাখ্যাঃ উপরের বাক্যগুলোতে Swimming, Teaching, Reading শব্দগুলো দ্বারা কাজ বুঝিয়েছে। তাই উক্ত শব্দগুলোকে GERUND নামে অবহিত করা হয়।
অপরদিকে,
Present Participle সবসময় চলমান কোনোকিছু কে নির্দেশ করবে।
যেমনঃ I heard them singing ‍song (আমি তাদের গান গাইতে শুনেছিলাম। অর্থাৎ, তারা যখন গান গাইতে ছিল (চলমান অবস্থাকে নির্দেশ করেছে) ।
এবার আসুন মূল আলোচনায়ঃ
✪ Noun এর আগে ing যুক্ত হয়ে noun compounds তৈরিতে gerunds:
I need a walking stick. (আমার একটি হাঁটার লাঠি দরকার )
My reading room is neat and clean.( আমার পড়ার ঘর পরিষ্কার-পরিচ্ছন্ন )
She takes a sleeping pill every night. ( সে প্রতি রাতে ঘুমের ঔষধ খায়।)
They don't use a dining table. ( তাঁরা ডাইনিং-টেবিল ব্যবহার করেন না।)
I joined the riding school. ( আমি অশ্বারোহণ শিক্ষণ বিদ্যালয়ে যোগদান করলাম।)

Important Note:( খুবই লক্ষ্যণীয় বিষয়)ঃ
উপরের পাঁচটি বাক্য Gerund-এর পর ‍যে noun-গুলো ( walking, room, pill, table, school ) আছে তারা কিন্তু gerund-গুলোতে উল্লেখিত কাজ করছে না। করলে v-ing গুলো participles হতো।
উদাহরণস্বরুপ বলা যায়, ‘running car', ‘flying bird' এবং 'rolling stone' phrase গুলোতে car নিজেই running অবস্থায় আছে, bird নিজেই flying অবস্থায় আছে এবং stone নিজেই rolling অবস্থায় আছে । তাই ‘running', ‘flying' এবং rolling এখানে participles, gerunds নয়।

পক্ষান্তরে, school teacher, college students এ ধরনের phrase-এ ‘school এবং ‘college' noun দুটো যেভাবে ব্যবহৃত হয়েছে, উপরের বাক্যে তিনটিতে reading, sleeping এবং dining-ও তেমনিভাবে noun-এর মতো ব্যবহৃত হয়েছে। তাই এরা gerunds. এ রকম আরও gerund হতে পারে।

যেমনঃ- Laughing gas,Driving Licence, swimming pool,sleepingu room, reading room, walking stick, looking glass, fencing sticks, hunting whip, running shoes, a running mill, a calling bell, frying pan, a drawing room, feeding room, a washing machine,a spinning mill ইত্যাদি।

#তাছাড়া , if i say 'school is riding', the 'school' fails to perform the task of 'riding'. বাস্তবজীবনে এটা কি সম্ভব ???
বিঃদ্রঃ
মনে রাখতে হবে যে, am , is ,are. was, were দ্বারা প্রতিস্থাপন করা গেলে তা হবে Present Participle অন্যদিকে, For দ্বারা প্রতিস্থাপন করা গেলে তা Gerund হয়। A riding school ( A school is riding নাকি A school for riding?? তার মানে is দ্বারা প্রতিস্থাপন করা যাচ্ছে না। কিন্তু For দ্বারা প্রতিস্থাপন করা যাচ্ছে । অতএব, এটি gerund এর উদাহরণ।

 Use of the gerund
Use the gerund (and not the infinitive):
1 After prepositions.
Examples: He worked without stopping. She played
instead of working.
2 After words which regularly take a preposition, such
as fond of, insist on, tired of, succeed in.
Examples: I'm tired of doing the work again. He
succeeded in catching the rat.
3 After certain verbs, such as avoid, enjoy, finish, stop,
risk, excuse.
Examples: They enjoy playing football. The wind has
stopped blowing.
4 After the adjectives busy and worth.
Examples: Lena was busy writing a book. This date is
worth remembering.
5 After certain phrases, such as it's no use, it's no good,
I can't help, would you mind, look forward to.
Examples: I think it's no use trying again. I can't help
feeling angry about it.
Use the gerund or the infinitive after certain verbs, such
as begin, like, dislike, hate, love, prefer,
Example: He began to talk or He began talking.
17
Part 1 Misused forms
92 Practise + -ing.
Don't say: You must practise to speak English.
/ Say: You must practise speaking English.
93 Remember + -ing.
Don't say: I don't remember to have seen him.
/ Say: I don't remember seeing him.
Or: I don't remember having seen him.
94 Risk + -ing.
Don't say: We couldn't risk to leave him alone.
/ Say: We couldn't risk leaving him alone.
95 Stop + -ing.
Don't say: The wind has almost stopped to blow.
/ Say: The wind has almost stopped blowing.
Note: Also give up (= stop): He gave up smoking.
(d) After certain adjectives:
95 Busy + -ing.
Don't say: He was busy to revise the exams.
/ Say: He was busy revising for the exams.
97 Worth + -ing.
Don't say: Is today's film worth to see?
/ Say: Is today's film worth seeing?
(e) After certain phrases:
98 Have difficulty in + -ing.
Don't say: She has no difficulty to do it.
/ Say: She has no difficulty in doing it.
99 Have the pleasure of + -ing.
Don't say: I had the pleasure to meet him.
/ Say: I had the pleasure of meeting him.
Note Also take pleasure in He takes great pleasure in helping others
100 It's no use + -ing.
Don't say: It's no use to cry like a baby.
/ Say: It's no use crying like a baby.
101 It's no good + -ing.
Don't say: It's no good to get angry.
/ Say: It's no good getting angry.
102 Look forward to + -ing.
Don't say: I look forward to see him soon.
/ Say: I look forward to seeing him soon.
103 There is no harm in + -ing.
Don't say: There's no harm to visit her now.
/ Say: There's no harm in visiting her now.
(See Exercises 63 and 64 on page 164.)

Working is a good exercise. Smoking is bad for health. I hate smoking. He enjoys reading. He is good at writing.
It is a wise saying. I like your doing everything.
Verbal Noun: the + verb+ ing + of : the reading of, the writing of, the playing of
The reading of this novel is interesting. The writing of this essay is not difficult.
R.Q: Teachers dislike …....... the examination routine as much as students do.
a) changing b) change c) having change d) to be changed
N.B(i): admit, advise, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, complete, consider, can’t /couldn’t help,
confess, consider, detest, dislike, defer, deny, delay, discuss, enjoy, endure, escape, excuse, explain, endure, face, fancy, finish, keep, imagine, involve, mention, miss, mind, permit, pardon, postpone, practice, prevent, quit, recall, recommend, regret, resent, report, resume, risk, stop, suggest, tolerate, understand + (v+ing)
N.B(ii): approve of, be better off, count on, depend on, get through, give up, insist on, keep on, put off, forget about, rely on, succeed in, think about, think of, choice of, excuse for, intention of, method for/ of, possibility of, reason for, intent on, capable of, interested in, afraid of, tired of, fond of + (v+ing)
N.B(iii): addicted to, adjust to, close to, commit to, object to, objection to, look forward to, confess to, accustomed to, with an eye to, with a view to, be used to, get used to, accustomed to, become accustomed to, unaccustomed to, confess to, knowledge to, contribute to, incentive to, averse to, oppose to, alternative to, in addition to, similar to, dedicated to, take to, tired to + (v+ing)
N.B(iv): nice, no good, no use, any use, worth, no difficult, no fun, any difficulty + (v+ ing)
ES
Examples:(i): She enjoys reading science fiction. She always keeps him waiting.
R.Q: The government is considering ---- a new international airport.
a) to build b) building c) to have built d) for building e) that build
N.B(ii): He insisted me on going there.
R.Q: I am fond of----
a) ride b) riding c) rider d) rode e) rides
N.B(iii): We commit to serving best in the country. She objected to marrying the man.
R.Q: Are you looking forward ----- your friend again?
a) seeing b) to see c) to seeing d) to saw e) to seen
N.B(iv): It was nice seeing you. It is no use going there.
R.Q: Which one is the correct answer? (PSC-2001)
a) It is no good of the talk to him b) To talk him is of no good
c) It’s no use talking to him d) It’s of no use how talking to him

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