Changing Sentence


1. Assertive
  • (a) affirmative
  • (b) Negative
2. Introgative
3. Imperative
4. Optative
5. Exclamatory

6. Degree
  •         (a) positive
  •         (b) Comperative
  •         (c) superlative

7. গঠন অনুসারে –
  • (a) simple          
  • (b) complex                
  • (c) compound
8. Voice change
  •       (a) active
  •       (b) passive
Changing sentence
Affirmative to Negative:
Rule 1: Only বা alone এর পরিবর্তে উত্তর বাক্যের শুরুতে None but বসে। আর কোন পরিবর্তন হয়না।
Affirmative: Only he can play good cricket.
Negative: None but he can play good cricket.
Affirmative: Only the science students can apply for the post.
Negative: None but the science students can apply for the post.
Affirmative: Only they can do the work.
Negative: None but they can do the work.
Note: বস্তুর ক্ষেত্রে only এর পরিবর্তে nothing but বসে। তবে বয়সের ক্ষেত্রে বা সংখ্যার ক্ষেত্রে only এর পরিবর্তে not more than বসে।
Affirmative: He is only four.
Negative: He is not more than four.
Affirmative: They have only two cars.
Negative: They have not more than two cars.
Rule 2:Affirmative sentence এ must থাকলে negative করার সময় must এর পরিবর্তে can not but/ can not help বসে। তবে can not help এর পরে যে verb থাকে তার সাথে ing যুক্ত করতে হয়।
Affirmative: you must yield to your fate.
Negative: You can not but yield to your fate.
Affirmative: We must obey our parents.
Negative: we can not but obey our parents.
Affirmative: you must care them.
Negative: You can not help caring them.
Rule 3:Every কে Negative করতে হলে every এর পরিবর্তে There is no বসে + every এর পরের শব্দটি বসে + but + প্রদত্ত sentence এর বাকী অংশ।
Affirmative: Everyone hates a terrorist.
Negative: There is no one but hates a terrorist.
Affirmative: Everybody fears a lion.
Negative: There is no body but hates a liar.
Rule 4: As soon as যুক্ত sentence কে Negative করতে হলে-
As soon as এর জায়গায় no sooner had বসবে + প্রদত্ত Sentence এর কর্তা বসে + সে Sentence এর মূল verb এর v3 বসে + সে sentence বাকী অংশ বসে + than + দ্বিতীয় বাক্য বসে।
Affirmative: As soon as he he saw the tiger, he ran away.
Negative: No sooner had he seen the Tiger than he ran away.
Affirmative: No sooner had the boy saw the police, he ran away.
Negative: As soon as the boy seen the police than he ran away.
Rule 5:Affirmative sentence কে Negative করার সময় উক্ত sentence এর Affirmative শব্দটির Negative রূপ বসাতে হয়। এবং উক্ত Negative এর পূর্বে not বসাতে হয়। বাকী সব থিক থাকে।
Affirmative: He is a good man.
Negative: He is not a bad man.
Affirmative: Rakib is an honest boy.
Negative: Rakib is not a dishonest boy.
Affirmative: This was an extra-ordinary ship.
Negative: This was not an ordinary ship.
Rule 6:Always যুক্ত Affirmative sentence কে Negative করতে হলে Always এর পরিবর্তে never বসে। Affirmative শব্দটির Negative রূপ বসাতে হয়।
Affirmative: He was always punctual.
Negative: He was never late.
Affirmative: I always tell truth.
Negative: I never tell lie.
Rule 7:Superlative degree যুক্ত Affirmative sentence কে Negative করতে হলে –
No other + superlative এর পরের অংশ + verb + as + superlative degree এর positive form + as + প্রদত্ত sentence এর subject.
Affirmative: He is the best batsman in the team.
Negative: No other batsman in the team is as good as he.
Affirmative: You are the best boy in the class.
Negative: No other boy in the class is as good as you.
Rule 8:Than any other/than all other যুক্ত comparative degree কে Negative করতে হলে –
No other + any other/all other এর পরের অংশ বসে + প্রদত্ত verb + so/as বসে + comparative degree এর positive form + as + প্রদত্ত sentence এর subject.
Affirmative: He is better than any other boy in the class.
Negative: No other boy in the class is as good as he.
Affirmative: Dhaka is bigger than all other cities in Bangladesh.
Negative: No other city in Bangladesh is as big as Dhaka.
Rule 9:Than যুক্ত comparative degree কে Negative করতে হলে –
Than এর শেষের অংশ প্রথমে বসে + verb (tense ও person অনুযায়ী) + not + so/as + comparative degree এর positive form + as + প্রদত্ত sentence এর subject.
Affirmative: He is stronger than you.
Negative: You are not as/so strong as he.
Affirmative: I am taller than you.
Negative: You are not as tall as me.
Rule 10:As....as যুক্ত positive degree কে Negative করতে হলে –
প্রথম as এর পরিবর্তে not less শেষ as এর পরিবর্তে than বসে।
Affirmative: Robi and Rahat were as strong as Rakib.
Negative: Robi and Rahat were not less strong than Rakib.
Affirmative: He is as good as you.
Negative: He is not less good than you.
Rule 11:Less...than যুক্ত sentence কে Negative করতে হলে –
Less এর জায়গায় not as বসবে এবং than এর জায়গায় as বসবে।
Affirmative: He is less ugly than you said.
Negative: He is not as ugly as you said.
Affirmative: You are less good than he said.
Negative: You are not as good as he said.

Rule 12:Too.....to যুক্ত sentence কে Negative করতে হলে –
Too এর জায়গায় so বসে + Too এর পরের adjective/adverb বসে + that বসে + পনুরায় subject বসে। + tense অনুযায়ী can not/could not + প্রদত্ত to এর পরের অংশ বসে।
Affirmative: He is too weak to walk.
Negative: He is so weak that he can not walk.
Affirmative: The sum was too difficult for me to work out.
Negative: The sum was so difficult for me that I could not work out.

                                         Assertive to interrogative
Rule 1:অর্থের পরিবর্তন না করে সাহায্যকারী verb যুক্ত Assertive sentence কে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় sentence টি যদি affirmative হয় তাহলে – Auxiliary verb + n’t + subject + বাকী + ?
Note- assertive এ will, can, shall, am থাকলে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় won’t, can’t, shan’t, ain’t হয়.
Assertive – He is in the school.
Interrogative – Isn’t he in the school?
Assertive – You can do the work.
Interrogative – Can’t you do the work?
Rule 2:Auxiliary verb যুক্ত negative অর্থবোধক Assertive sentence কে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় negative উঠে যায়। এবং সাহায্যকারী verb প্রথমে বসে। শেষে প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন বসে।
Assertive – He is not in the school.
Interrogative – Is he in the school?
Assertive – I shall not go to Dhaka tomorrow.
Interrogative – Shall I go to Dhaka tomorrow?
Rule 3:Auxiliary verb বিহীন Assertive sentence interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় –
Subject and tense অনুযায়ী don’t/ didn’t/ doesn’t বসে + subject + v1 + verb এর পরের অংশ +?
Assertive – He played good football.
Interrogative – Didn’t he play good football?
Assertive – He likes ice-cream.
Interrogative – Doesn’t he like ice-cream?
Rule 4:Assertive sentence এ never থাকলে ever হয় এবং nothing থাকলে anything হয়। auxiliary verb না থাকলে Subject and tense অনুযায়ী প্রথমে আনতে হয়। শেষে প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন বসে।
Assertive – You never play football.
Interrogative - Do you ever play football?
Assertive – I have nothing to do?
Interrogative – Have I anything to do?
Note – Assertive sentence এর subject এ যদি nothing থাকে তাহলে nothing এর জায়গায় what বসে।
Assertive – Nothing can ruin him.
Interrogative – what can ruin him?
Rule 5:Everybody/ everyone/all যুক্ত Assertive sentence কে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় Everybody/ everyone/all এর পরিবর্তে who বসে + Subject and tense অনুযায়ী don’t/ didn’t/ doesn’t বসে + v1 + verb এর পরের অংশ +?
Assertive – Everybody wants to be win.
Interrogative – Who doesn’t wish to be win?
Assertive – Everybody/All loves flowers.
Interrogative – Who doesn’t love flower?
Rule 6:Nobody/none/no one interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় –
Nobody/none/no one এর পরিবর্তে who বসে + বাকী অংশ + ?
Assertive – Nobody could ever count my love for you.
Interrogative – Who could ever count my love for you?
Assertive – No one can beat him.
Interrogative – Who can beat him?


                                          Exclamatory to assertive
Rule 1:Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে -
প্রথমে subject বসে + verb + a/an + very/great + adjective + বাকী অংশ।
Exclamatory – What a nice flower it is!
Assertive – It is a very nice flower.
Exclamatory – What a genius student he is!
Assertive – He is a very genius student.
Rule 2:Hurrah যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে –
Hurrah এর পরিবর্তে it is a matter of joy + Hurrah এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory – Hurrah! We have won the game.
Assertive – It is a matter of joy that we have won the game.
Exclamatory – hurrah! I got the first prize.
Assertive – It is a matter of joy that I have got the first prize.
Rule 3:If দ্বারা exclamatory sentence শুরু হলে উক্ত sentence কে Assertive করার নিয়ম –
Exclamatory – If I were a player!
Assertive – I wish I were a player.
Exclamatory – If I could fly!
Assertive – I wish I could fly
.
Rule 4:প্রথমে had যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে –
Subject + wish + পুনরায় subject বসে + had + বাকী অংশ।
Exclamatory – Had I the pairs of birds!
Assertive – I wish I had the pairs of birds.
Exclamatory – Had I been a king!
Assertive – I wish I had been a king.
Rule 6:প্রথমে Alas যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে –
Alas এর পরিবর্তে it is a matter of sorrow that + alas এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory – Alas! We lost the game!
Assertive – It is a matter of sorrow that we lost the game.
Exclamatory – Alas! He failed in the examination!
Assertive – It is a matter of sorrow that he failed in the examination.
Rule 7:প্রথমে Fie যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে –
Fie এর পরিবর্তে it is shameful that + fie এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory - Fie! He can not tolerate the poor.
Assertive – It is shameful that he can not tolerate the poor.
Exclamatory - Fie! He don’t respect seniors.
Assertive – It is shameful that he don’t respect seniors.
Rule 8:প্রথমে Would that যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে –
প্রদত্ত subject + wish + Would that এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory - Would that I could be a player!
Assertive – I wish I could be a player.
Exclamatory - Would that I could be a child again!
Assertive – I wish I could be a child again.
Rule 9:প্রথমে o that যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে –
Subject + wish + o that এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory – O that you were a cricketer!
Assertive – I wish you were a cricketer.
Exclamatory – O that i were a poet.
Assertive – I wish I were a poet.


                                    Assertive to Exclamatory
Rule 1:প্রথমে what বা how বসে + adjective বসে + subject + verb + বাকী অংশ( যদি থাকে) + !
Note – adjective এর পূর্বে a থাকলে what a বসে এবং a না থাকলে how বসে.
Assertive - It is a very beautiful place.
Exclamatory – What a beautiful place it is!
Assertive – The man is very honest.
Exclamatory – How honest the man is!
Rule 2:Assertive sentence এ wish থাকলে Exclamatory করার সময় শুরুতে if/had বসে।
Assertive – I wish I had the wings of a bird.
Exclamatory – Had I the wings of bird!
Or, If I had the wings of a bird!
Assertive – I wish I were a king.
Exclamatory – If I were a king!
Rule 3:Assertive sentence এ wish/desire Exclamatory sentence করার সময় এর শুরুতে If, had, o that, oh that ইত্যাদি বসে।
Assertive – I wish I were a player.
Exclamatory – If I were a player!
Assertive – I desire I were young again.
Exclamatory – Oh that I were young again.



                                                 Change of Degree:


Superlative into comparative
Rule 1:Subject + verb + Superlative এর comparative form + than any other + প্রদত্ত sentence বাকী অংশ।
Superlative: He is the best player in the team.
Comparative: He is better than any other player in the team.
Note: All of থাকলে All of এর পরিবর্তে than all other বসে।
Superlative: He is the best of all men.
Comparative: He is better than all other man.
Rule 2:One of the যুক্ত Superlative Degree কে Comparative Degree তে রুপান্তর করার নিয়মঃ
Subject + verb + Superlative এর comparative form + than most other + প্রদত্ত sentence বাকী অংশ।
Superlative: Kibria is one of the best players in the team.
Comparative: Kibria is better than most other players in the team.
Superlative: Canada is one of the coldest countries in the world.
Comparative: Canada is colder than most other countries in the world.


                                           Positive into comparative
Rule 1:No other যুক্ত positive Degree কে Comparative Degree তে রুপান্তর করার নিয়মঃ
প্রদত্ত sentence এর শেষের subject + verb + positive degree এর comparative form + than any other + no other এর পর থেকে verb এর পূর্ব পর্যন্ত।
Positive: No other player in the team is as best as he.
Comparative: He is better than any other player in the team.
Positive: No other country in the world is so/as cold as Canada.
Comparative: Canada is colder than any other country in the world.

Rule 2:Very few যুক্ত positive Degree কে Comparative Degree তে রুপান্তর করার নিয়মঃ
প্রদত্ত sentence এর শেষের subject + verb + positive degree এর comparative form + than most other + no other এর পর থেকে verb এর পূর্ব পর্যন্ত।
Positive: Very few students are so good as Lablu.
Comparative: Lablu is better than most other students.
Positive: Very few metals are so costly as gold.
Comparative: Gold is costlier than most other metals.
Rule 3:As……as যুক্ত positive Degree কে Comparative Degree তে রুপান্তর করার নিয়মঃ
প্রদত্ত sentence এর শেষের subject + verb + not + positive degree এর comparative form + than + প্রদত্ত sentence এর প্রথম subject।
Positive: He is as good as his brother
Comparative: His brother is not better than he.


                                     Comparative into superlative
Rule 1:Subject + verb + the + Comparative এর superlative form + other এর পরের অংশ।
Comparative: He is better than any other player in the team.
Superlative: He is the best player in the team.

Note – other এর পর plural noun থাকলে superlative এর পরে of all বসে ।
Comparative: He is bigger than of all boys.
Superlative: He is the tallest of all boys.
Rule 2:Than most other/than few other যুক্ত Comparative কে Superlative এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম:
Subject + verb + one of the + Comparative degree এর superlative form + most other/few other এর পরের অংশ।
Comparative: Vatican City is smaller than most other countries in the world.
Superlative: Vatican City is one of the smallest countries in the world.
Comparative: Dhaka is bigger than most other cities in Bangladesh.
Superlative: Dhaka is one of the biggest cities in Bangladesh.


Positive into superlative:
Rule 1:No other যুক্ত positive degree কে superlative degree তে রুপান্তর করার নিয়মঃ
প্রদত্ত sentence এর শেষের Subject + verb + the + positive এর superlative form + no other এর পর থেকে verb এর মাঝের অংশ।
Positive: No other player in the team is as good as Raju.
Superlative: Raju is the best player in the team.
Positive: No other man man in the society is as good as he.
Superlative: He is the best man in the society.
Rule 2:Very few যুক্ত positive degree কে superlative degree তে রুপান্তর করার নিয়মঃ
প্রদত্ত sentence এর শেষের Subject + verb + one of the + positive এর superlative form + very few এর পর থেকে verb এর মাঝের অংশ।
Positive: Very few men in the village are as tall as kobir.
Superlative: Kobir is one of the tallest men in the village.
Positive: Very few people in the country are as good as Rakib
Superlative: Rakib is one of the best people in the country.



Degrees
সংজ্ঞা:
কোনো ব্যক্তি বা বস্তুর মধ্যে দোষ-গুণের তুলনাকে Degree বলে।
Degree তিন প্রকার। যথা:
(i) Positive degree
(ii) Comparative degree
(iii) Superlative degree
Positive degree : যখন কোনো ব্যক্তি বা বস্তুর মধ্যে তুলনা বোঝায় না, তখন adjective-এর positive degree হয়। এ ক্ষেত্রে adjective-এর কোনো পরিবর্তন হয় না। Example : He is tall.
Comparative degree : যখন দুই ব্যক্তি বা বস্তুর মধ্যে তুলনা বোঝায়, তখন adjective-এর Comparative degree হয়। Example: He is taller than I.
Superlative degree : যখন দুয়ের অধিক ব্যক্তি বা বস্তুর মধ্যে তুলনা করা হয়, তখন adjective-এর Superlative degree হয়।
Example : He is the tallest boy in the class. ********************­********************­********************­ **********
নিয়ম ১: যদি Positive degree শেষে একটি consonant বা দুটি consonant থাকে তাহলে comparative করার সময় er এবং superlative করার সময় est যোগ করতে হয়। Positive Comparative Superlative
Black blacker blackest
Cold colder coldest
New newest newest
নিয়ম ২: যদি Positive degree-এর শেষে e থাকে তাহলে Comparative করার সময় r এবং Superlative করার সময় st যোগ করতে হয়।
Positive Comparative Superlative
Brave braver bravest
Fine finer finest
Nice nicer nicest
Wide wider widest
নিয়ম ৩: যদি Positive degree শেষে consonant এবং তার আগে vowel থাকে তাহলে consonant double করে comparative করার সময় er এবং superlative করার সময় est যোগ করতে হয়।
Positive Comparative Superlative
Big bigger biggest
Hot hotter hottest
Sad sadder saddest
Thin thinner thinnest
নিয়ম ৪: যদি Positive degree শেষে ‘Y’ এবং তার আগে consonant থাকে তাহলে ‘Y’ স্থলে i বসিয়ে comparative করার সময় er এবং Superlative করার সময় est যোগ করতে হয়।
Positive Comparative Superlative
Happy happier happiest
Dry drier driest
Easy easier easiest
Merry merrier merriest
Note: ব্যতিক্রম ক্ষেত্রে কোনো পরিবর্তন না হয়ে শুধু comparative-এর সময় er এবং superlative-এর সময় est বসবে।
Positive Comparative Superlative
Gay gayer gayest
Grey greyer greyest
নিয়ম-৫: দুই Syllable যুক্ত অধিকাংশ Adjective এবং দুই-এর অধিক syllable যুক্ত সমস্ত Adjective এবং ‘full’ যুক্ত সব Adjective-এর আগে more বা less যোগ করে Comparative এবং most বা least যোগ করে Superlative Degree গঠন করা হয়ে থাকে।
Positive Comparative Superlative
Beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
less beautiful least beautiful
Careful more careful most careful
less careful least careful
Honest more honest most honest
Important more important most important
নিয়ম ৬: কতকগুলো Positive degree রয়েছে যাদের Comparative এবং Superlative করার সময় কোনো সুনির্দিষ্ট নিয়ম মেনে চলতে হয় না। এদের Irregular Adjective বলে।
যেমন:
Positive --------------- Comparative ------------ Superlative
Bad -------------- worse -------------- worst
Good -------------- better -------------- best
Late -------------- later-------------- latest
Many/­Much-------------- more --------------most
Little--------------­ less --------------least
Fore-------------- former--------------­ foremost
Old -------------- older --------------oldest­/­eldest **********************­********************­****************** ***********
Subject+ verb+ a/an +adjective+ noun/ pronoun+
He is a good boy
Subject+ verb +adj(comp)+ than any other/(than all other +noun plural)/­than every other + noun(singular)+……………..
He is better than any other boy.
Subject+ verb+ the +adj(superlative)+ noun+ other word.
He is the best boy ********************­********************­********************­ ***********
No other+ subject-------am/is/­are/was/were +so/as +adverb/
adjective (positive form)+as +Subject.
No other girl is as good as her.
Subject +verb +Comparative form+ than+ any other/all other+ ………………………
She is better than any other girl in the class.
Subject +am/is/are/was/­were+the +Superlative form+of (if
present) +…………
She is the best girl in the class. ********************­********************­********************­ ***********
No other +noun+ verb+ so/as+ adj +as +other word.
No other boy is as good as he
Subject+ verb +adj (comp)+ than any other/than all other + noun
+ other word
He is better than any boy
Subject+ verb+ the +adj (superlative)+ noun+ other word.
He is the best of all the boys. ********************­********************­********************­ ***********
Sub+ verb+ not +so/as +adverb/­adjective(positive form)+as+
…….
Rina is not so wise as Dina.
Noun/pronoun +verb+ Comparative form +than+…..
Dina is wiser than Rina. ********************­********************­********************­ ***********
Sub+ verb +as +positive form +as+……..
A plane flies as fast as a rocket.
Noun/Pronoun+ do not/does not/did not+ verb+ comparative+
than+ Subject.
A Rocket does not fly faster than a plane. ********************­********************­********************­ ***********
Subject +verb ,at least, +as +positive +as +subject.
A plane flies,at least,as fast as a bird.
Subject +do not/does not/did not +comparative +than +subject.
A bird does not fly faster than a plane. ********************­********************­********************­ ***********
Noun/pronoun +verb+, +at least, +as +adj +as +subject…..
Karim is, at least, as cautious as he
Subject +was/were/is/are +not le

Post a Comment

Please express your needs and emotions by using comment Box above.