Transformation of sentense or Changing sentences

Transformation of sentense
 or Changing sentences

1. Assertive
    (a) affirmative
     (b) Negative

2. Introgative
3. Imperative
4. Optative
5. Exclamatory

 6. Degree
    (a) positive
     (b) Comperative
      (c) superlative

7. গঠন অনুসারে –
   (a) simple
    (b) complex
     (c) compound

8. Voice change
    (a) active
     (b) passive
Affirmative থেকে Negative 
1. only/alone থাকলে none but হয় । [বাক্তির ক্ষেত্রে ]
a. Affir: only kamrul came .
    Neg: None but kamrul came .
b. Affir: only God can help us .
     Neg: None but God can help us .
c. Affir: only graduate should apply .
     Neg: None but the graduate should apply .
 d. Affir: only the learned are respected .
     Neg: None but the learned are respected .
e. Affir: God alone can help us .
     Neg: None but God can help us .

2. only/alone থাকলে nothing but হয় । [বস্তুর ক্ষেত্রে]
a. Affir: A child likes only sweets .
    Neg: A child likes nothing but sweets .

3. only থাকলে not more / less than হয় । [সংখ্যা বোঝালে ]
 a. Affir: He is only ten.
     Neg: He is not more than ten.
 b. Affir: Karim was only twenty two .
    Neg: Karim was not more than twenty two .

4. Both_____and থাকলে not only_____but also হয় ।
 a. Affir: Both rajib and rakib were good friends .
     Neg: Not only rajib but also rakib were good friends .

 5. every থাকলে there is no + but + বাকি অংশ ।
 a. Affir: Every mother loves her child .
    Neg: there is no mother but loves her child .

6. Simple affirmatve থাকলে not + affirmative word এর opposite word হয় ।
 a. Affir: I shall remember you.
    Neg: I shall not forget you.
 b. Affir: He is a good player.
    Neg: He is not a bad player.
c. Affir: He was an honest boy.
    Neg: He was not a dishonest boy.
d. Affir: This was an extraordianary ship.
    Neg: This was not an ordianary ship.

7. Always থাকলে এর পরিবর্তে never + affirmative এর opposite word হয় ।
a. Affir: I always ageed with him.
    Neg: I never disagreed with him.
b. Affir: Rahim was always punctual.
    Neg: Rahim was never late.

 8. too___to থাকলে-
Sub+verb+too পরিবর্তে so + too পরবর্তী adjective/adverb+ that + sub+ can/could not + to পরবর্তী অংশ । Aff: He is too weak to go.
   Neg: He is so weak that he cannot go.

9.As____as থাকলে – ১ম as এর পরিবর্তে not less ২য় as এর পরিবর্তে than ।
 Aff: Rashed was as wise as Rakib.
   Neg: Rashed was not less wise than Rakib.

10.Sometimes থাকলে এর পরিবর্তে no/not +always হয় ।
 Aff: My friend sometimes visits me.
   Neg: My friend does not always visits me.

11. Many থাকলে এর পরিবর্তে not a few হয় ।
Aff: There are many students in the class.
   Neg: There are not a few students in the class.

12. A few থাকলে পরিবর্তে not many বসে ।
 Aff: I have a few friends.
   Neg: I have not many friends.

13. A little থাকলে পরিবর্তে not much বসে .
 Aff: I have a little rice.
   Neg: I have not much rice.

14.much থাকলে পরিবর্তে not a little বসে .
Aff: He has much money.
  Neg: He has not a little money.

Assertive to interrogative 
Rule 1: অর্থের পরিবর্তন না করে সাহায্যকারী verb যুক্ত Assertive sentence কে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় sentence টি যদি affirmative হয় তাহলে –
Auxiliary verb + n’t + subject + বাকী + ?
Note- assertive এ will, can, shall, am থাকলে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় won’t, can’t, shan’t, ain’t হয়.
Assertive – He is in the school.
Interrogative – Isn’t he in the school?
Assertive – You can do the work.
Interrogative – Can’t you do the work?

Rule 2: Auxiliary verb যুক্ত negative অর্থবোধক Assertive sentence কে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় negative উঠে যায়। এবং সাহায্যকারী verb প্রথমে বসে। শেষে প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন বসে।
 Assertive – He is not in the school.
Interrogative – Is he in the school?
Assertive – I shall not go to Dhaka tomorrow.
 Interrogative – Shall I go to Dhaka tomorrow?

Rule 3: Auxiliary verb বিহীন Assertive sentence interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় –
Subject and tense অনুযায়ী don’t/ didn’t/ doesn’t বসে + subject + v1 + verb এর পরের অংশ +?
Assertive – He played good football.
Interrogative – Didn’t he play good football?
Assertive – He likes ice-cream.
Interrogative – Doesn’t he like ice-cream?

Rule 4: Assertive sentence এ never থাকলে ever হয় এবং nothing থাকলে anything হয়। auxiliary verb না থাকলে Subject and tense অনুযায়ী প্রথমে আনতে হয়। শেষে প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন বসে।
Assertive – You never play football.
Interrogative - Do you ever play football?
Assertive – I have nothing to do?
Interrogative – Have I anything to do?
Note – Assertive sentence এর subject এ যদি nothing থাকে তাহলে nothing এর জায়গায় what বসে। Assertive – Nothing can ruin him.
Interrogative – what can ruin him?

Rule 5: Everybody/ everyone/all যুক্ত Assertive sentence কে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় Everybody/ everyone/all এর পরিবর্তে who বসে + Subject and tense অনুযায়ী don’t/ didn’t/ doesn’t বসে + v1 + verb এর পরের অংশ +?
 Assertive – Everybody wants to be win.
Interrogative – Who doesn’t wish to be win?
Assertive – Everybody/All loves flowers.
Interrogative – Who doesn’t love flower?

Rule - 6: Nobody/none/no one interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় –
Nobody/none/no one এর পরিবর্তে who বসে + বাকী অংশ + ?
Assertive – Nobody could ever count my love for you.
Interrogative – Who could ever count my love for you?
Assertive – No one can beat him.
Interrogative – Who can beat him?

Exclamatory to assertive 
Rule 1:Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে -
প্রথমে subject বসে + verb + a/an + very/great + adjective + বাকী অংশ।
Exclamatory – What a nice flower it is!
Assertive – It is a very nice flower.
Exclamatory – What a genius student he is!
Assertive – He is a very genius student.

Rule 2:Hurrah যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে –
Hurrah এর পরিবর্তে it is a matter of joy + Hurrah এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory – Hurrah! We have won the game.
Assertive – It is a matter of joy that we have won the game.
 Exclamatory – hurrah! I got the first prize.
Assertive – It is a matter of joy that I have got the first prize.

Rule 3:If দ্বারা exclamatory sentence শুরু হলে উক্ত sentence কে Assertive করার নিয়ম –
Exclamatory – If I were a player!
Assertive – I wish I were a player.
Exclamatory – If I could fly!
Assertive – I wish I could fly .

Rule 4:প্রথমে had যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে – Subject + wish + পুনরায় subject বসে + had + বাকী অংশ।
Exclamatory – Had I the pairs of birds!
Assertive – I wish I had the pairs of birds.
Exclamatory – Had I been a king!
Assertive – I wish I had been a king.

Rule 6:প্রথমে Alas যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে – Alas এর পরিবর্তে it is a matter of
sorrow that + alas এর পরের অংশ। 
Exclamatory – Alas! We lost the game!
Assertive – It is a matter of sorrow that we lost the game.
Exclamatory – Alas! He failed in the examination!
Assertive – It is a matter of sorrow that he failed in the examination.

Rule 7:প্রথমে Fie যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে – Fie এর পরিবর্তে it is shameful that + fie এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory - Fie! He can not tolerate the poor.
Assertive – It is shameful that he can not tolerate the poor.
Exclamatory - Fie! He don’t respect seniors.
Assertive – It is shameful that he don’t respect seniors.

Rule 8:প্রথমে Would that যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে – প্রদত্ত subject + wish + Would that এর পরের অংশ।
 Exclamatory - Would that I could be a player!
Assertive – I wish I could be a player.
Exclamatory - Would that I could be a child again!
Assertive – I wish I could be a child again.

Rule 9:প্রথমে o that যুক্ত Exclamatory কে Assertive এ করতে হলে – Subject + wish + o that এর পরের অংশ।
Exclamatory – O that you were a cricketer!
Assertive – I wish you were a cricketer.
 Exclamatory – O that i were a poet.
Assertive – I wish I were a poet.

Assertive to Exclamatory
Rule 1:প্রথমে what বা how বসে + adjective বসে + subject + verb + বাকী অংশ( যদি থাকে) + !
Note – adjective এর পূর্বে a থাকলে what a বসে এবং a না থাকলে how বসে.
Assertive - It is a very beautiful place.
Exclamatory – What a beautiful place it is!
Assertive – The man is very honest.
Exclamatory – How honest the man is!

Rule 2:Assertive sentence এ wish থাকলে Exclamatory করার সময় শুরুতে if/had বসে।
 Assertive – I wish I had the wings of a bird.
Exclamatory – Had I the wings of bird! Or, If I had the wings of a bird!
Assertive – I wish I were a king.
Exclamatory – If I were a king!

Rule 3:Assertive sentence এ wish/desire Exclamatory sentence করার সময় এর শুরুতে If, had, o that, oh that ইত্যাদি বসে।
Assertive – I wish I were a player.
Exclamatory – If I were a player!
Assertive – I desire I were young again.
Exclamatory – Oh that I were young again.

Change of Degree
 Superlative into comparative
Rule 1:Subject + verb + Superlative এর comparative form + than any other + প্রদত্ত sentence বাকী অংশ।
Superlative: He is the best player in the team.
Comparative: He is better than any other player in the team.
Note: All of থাকলে All of এর পরিবর্তে than all other বসে।
Superlative: He is the best of all men.
Comparative: He is better than all other man.

Rule 2:One of the যুক্ত Superlative Degree কে Comparative Degree তে রুপান্তর করার নিয়মঃ
Subject + verb + Superlative এর comparative form + than most other + প্রদত্ত sentence বাকী অংশ।
Superlative: Kibria is one of the best players in the team.
Comparative: Kibria is better than most other players in the team.
Superlative: Canada is one of the coldest countries in the world.
Comparative: Canada is colder than most other countries in the world.

Positive into comparative
Rule 1:No other যুক্ত positive Degree কে Comparative Degree তে রুপান্তর করার নিয়মঃ প্রদত্ত sentence এর শেষের subject + verb + positive degree এর comparative form + than any other + no other এর পর থেকে verb এর পূর্ব পর্যন্ত।
Positive: No other player in the team is as best as he.
Comparative: He is better than any other player in the team.
Positive: No other country in the world is so/as cold as Canada.
Comparative: Canada is colder than any other country in the world.

Rule 2:Very few যুক্ত positive Degree কে Comparative Degree তে রুপান্তর করার নিয়মঃ প্রদত্ত sentence এর শেষের subject + verb + positive degree এর comparative form + than most other + no other এর পর থেকে verb এর পূর্ব পর্যন্ত।
Positive: Very few students are so good as Lablu.
Comparative: Lablu is better than most other students.
Positive: Very few metals are so costly as gold.
Comparative: Gold is costlier than most other metals.

Rule 3:As……as যুক্ত positive Degree কে Comparative Degree তে রুপান্তর করার নিয়মঃ প্রদত্ত sentence এর শেষের subject + verb + not + positive degree এর comparative form + than + প্রদত্ত sentence এর প্রথম subject। 
Positive: He is as good as his brother 
Comparative: His brother is not better than he.  

Comparative into superlative 
Rule 1:Subject + verb + the + Comparative এর superlative form + other এর পরের অংশ। Comparative: He is better than any other player in the team. Superlative: He is the best player in the team. Note – other এর পর plural noun থাকলে superlative এর পরে of all বসে ।
Comparative: He is bigger than of all boys.
Superlative: He is the tallest of all boys.

Rule 2:Than most other/than few other যুক্ত Comparative কে Superlative এ রুপান্তর করার নিয়ম:
Subject + verb + one of the + Comparative degree এর superlative form + most other/few other এর পরের অংশ।
Comparative: Vatican City is smaller than most other countries in the world.
Superlative: Vatican City is one of the smallest countries in the world.
Comparative: Dhaka is bigger than most other cities in Bangladesh.
Superlative: Dhaka is one of the biggest cities in Bangladesh.

Positive into superlative
Rule 1:No other যুক্ত positive degree কে superlative degree তে রুপান্তর করার নিয়মঃ প্রদত্ত sentence এর শেষের Subject + verb + the + positive এর superlative form + no other এর পর থেকে verb এর মাঝের অংশ।
Positive: No other player in the team is as good as Raju.
Superlative: Raju is the best player in the team.
Positive: No other man man in the society is as good as he.
Superlative: He is the best man in the society.

Rule 2:Very few যুক্ত positive degree কে superlative degree তে রুপান্তর করার নিয়মঃ প্রদত্ত sentence এর শেষের Subject + verb + one of the + positive এর superlative form + very few এর পর থেকে verb এর মাঝের অংশ।
Positive: Very few men in the village are as tall as kobir.
Superlative: Kobir is one of the tallest men in the village.
Positive: Very few people in the country are as good as Rakib
Superlative: Rakib is one of the best people in the country.

Affirmative থেকে Negative
1. only kamrul came .
Ans: None but kamrul came . 

2. only God can help us .
  Ans: None but God can help us .

3. only graduate should apply .
None but the graduate should apply . 

4. only the learned are respected .
None but the learned are respected .

5. God alone can help us .
None but God can help us . 

6. A child likes only sweets .
A child likes nothing but sweets . 

7. He is only ten.
He is not more than ten.

8. Karim was only twenty two .
Karim was not more than twenty two .

9. Both rajib and rakib were good friends .
Not only rajib but also rakib were good friends

10. Every mother loves her child .
there is no mother but loves her child .

11. I shall remember you.
I shall not forget you.

12. He is a good player.
He is not a bad player.

13. He was an honest boy.
He was not a dishonest boy.

14. This was an extraordianary ship.
 This was not an ordianary ship.

15. I always ageed with him.
I never disagreed with him.

16. Rahim was always punctual.
Rahim was never late.

17. He is too weak to go.
He is so weak that he cannot go.

18. Rashed was as wise as Rakib.
Rashed was not less wise than Rakib.

19. My friend sometimes visits me.
My friend does not always visits me.

20. There are many students in the class.
 There are not a few students in the class.

21. He has much money.
 He has not a little money.

22. I have a little rice.
I have not much rice.

23. I have a few friends.
  I have not many friends.
24. Man is mortal .
 Man is not immortal .

25. I must go there .
I can not but go there .

26. you must obey your parents.
you can not but obey your parents.

27. Both Raju and Meena can do it .
not only Raju but also Meena can do it . 

Superlative degree
28. He is the best batsman in the team.
No other batsman in the team is as good as he.

29. You are the best boy in the class.
No other boy in the class is as good as you.

30. Raju is the best boy in the class .
No other boy in the class is as good as Raju .

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